1: Spencer, M. (2015). Size change, shape change, and the growth space of a community. Journal of Theoretical Biology 369:23-41.

2: Loh, J., Green, R. E., Ricketts, T., Lamoreux, J., Jenkins, M., Kapos, V., Randers, J., 2005. The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360, 289–295.

3: Foster, B. L., Tilman, D., 2000. Dynamic and static views of succession: Testing the descriptive power of the chronosequence approach. Plant Ecology 146, 1–10.

4: Jassby, A. D., Goldman, C. R., 1974. A quantitative measure of succession rate and its application to the phyto- plankton of lakes. American Naturalist 108, 688–693.

5: Field, J. G., Clarke, K. R., Warwick, R. M., 1982. A practical strategy for analysing multispecies distribution patterns. Marine Ecology Progress Series 8, 37–52.

6: Lewis Jr., W.M., 1978. Analysis of succession in a tropical phytoplankton community and a new measure of succession rate. Am. Nat. 112, 401-414.

7: Legendre, P., Gallagher, E.D., 2001. Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data. Oecologia 129, 271-280.

              Created by:


Lead developers
  • Scott Ferson (Ph.D)
  • Nick Friedenberg (Ph.D)

Lead developers
  • Luke Green

              Funded by:


NERC Grant NE/K00297X/1 awarded to M. Spencer

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